October/November 2009


Safety first

Stephen Mounsey looks into the requirements that laser safety equipment must meet, and takes a look at the various precautions that are available and advisable to laser users


Lithography lessons

Being able to engineer integrated circuits with higher transistor counts involves printing smaller structures. Photolithography, used in silicon chip fabrication, employs a variety of optical trickery to reduce the size of printed features, as Greg Blackman finds out